It is essential that all areas in the syllabus are studied diligently because any single exam question may examine more than one topic.

Each subject within the syllabus is divided into a number of broad syllabus topics. The topics contain one or more lead learning outcomes, related component learning outcomes and indicative knowledge content.

The lead learning outcomes are part of a hierarchy of learning objectives. The active verbs used at the beginning of each learning outcome relate to a specific learning objective, for example e.g.: Evaluate performance using fixed and flexible budget reports. The verb “Evaluate” indicates a high-level learning objective (Level 5). Because learning objectives are hierarchical, it is expected that at this level (Level 5), the candidates (learners) will have prior “knowledge” (Level 1) of fixed and flexible budget techniques, be able to “explain” (Level 2), “apply” (Level 3) them and “analyse” (Level 4) performance using relevant reports.

Avoid using generic terms like “know” and “understand” that does not really provide reliable measurement and meaningful interpretation of the desirable learning outcomes.

Each lead learning outcome:

(a) …defines the skill or ability that a well-prepared candidate (student) should be able to exhibit in the examination; and

(b) …is examinable and demonstrates the approach likely to be taken (assessable) in examination questions.

The following table lists the hierarchy of learning objectives and relevant verbs primarily used to assess student’s holistic ability to perform accordingly as per the expectations (definitions). You can therefore expect to be tested on knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis and evaluation in the examinations across levels and standards. The hierarchy shall start from lower-order Level【1】way up to higher-order Level【5】.

For instance: Upon completion of the chapter (learning unit), students (you/I) should be able to:

(1) Explain the purpose of management accounting and the role of the Management Accountant.

(2) Demonstrate cost identification and classification.

(3) Apply absorption costing and marginal costing.

(4) Prepare budgets for planning and control.

(5) Reconcile budgeted and actual profits in a marginal format.

(6) Calculate appropriate financial and non-financial performance measures.

(7) Produce accounts and reports for managers.

(8) Analyse sources and types of financial risks.

(9) Evaluate the sources and impact of governance risks.

(10) Compare and contrast fiscal and monetary policy.

(11) Discuss various issues relating to internal audit in organisations.

(12) Recommend internal controls for risk management.

Passing exams is partly a matter of intellectual ability, but however accomplished you are in that respect you can improve your achievement significantly by the use of appropriate learning (revision) techniques. You should know yourself better than anyone else. For that reason it is so crucial for being real honest to your own good self on your personal inadequacies which you got to turnaround into strengths. Absolutely it is the individual responsibility and personal call to pursue your lifelong learning intelligence in any given circumstances and whatever challenges that lie ahead.

Learn for mastery, NOT test score. & Learn more, NOT less.

First thing first, having the right mindset is above all.